This research paper has been written by Dr. Eleanor Longden and published in the Journal of Humanistic Psychology. The abstract cited in ResearchGate says:
“While voice hearing (auditory verbal hallucinations) is closely allied with psychosis/schizophrenia, it is well-established that the experience is reported by individuals with nonpsychotic diagnoses, as well as those with no history of psychiatric contact. The phenomenological similarities in voice hearing within these different populations, as well as increased recognition of associations between adversity exposure and voice presence/content, have helped strengthened the contention that voice hearing may be more reliably associated with psychosocial variables per se rather than specific clinical diagnoses.
Evidence is examined for understanding voice hearing as a psychological response to environmental stressors, and the implications of this for clinical practice. Consideration is also given to the impact of the International Hearing Voices Movement, an influential survivor-led initiative that promotes person-centered, nondiagnostic approaches to the voice-hearing experience.”
You can find out more from here.